HAVING REGARD to Article 5(b) of the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development of 14th December 1960;
HAVING REGARD to the Report by the Special Committee for Machinery of 24th June 1966 concerning a Model of Safety Regulations for Tower Cranes for Building Work and the Comments by the Trade Committee of 14th November 1966 on that Report [Doc. Nos. EQ(66)8 and Appendix; C(66)127];
CONSIDERING that obstacles to the expansion of trade in tower cranes resulting from differences between national technical regulations could be reduced by adapting them to a model of regulations;
CONSIDERING, on the other hand, that in exceptional cases (for instance, use for special jobs, special local conditions, legislative necessities), Governments may be obliged to apply some regulations which go beyond certain clauses of the Model and that manufacturers should therefore be familiarised with stricter national regulations applicable in countries to which they wish to export;
I. RECOMMENDS Governments of Member countries to adapt their national technical regulations as closely as possible to the proposed Model of Safety Regulations for Tower Cranes for Building Work set out in the Annex to this Recommendation*.
II. REQUESTS Governments of Member countries to inform the Organisation in a year’s time of the follow-up they have been able to give to this Recommendation and to notify it of cases in which national regulations are stricter than those of the Model of Safety Regulations referred to above.
III. INSTRUCTS the Special Committee for Machinery to report to it in due course on the application of this Recommendation by Member Governments.
MODEL OF SAFETY REGULATIONS
FOR TOWER CRANES FOR BUILDING WORK
1. STANDARDS OF STRENGTH AND SAFETY FOR TOWER CRANES FOR BUILDING WORK
2. RECOMMANDATIONS TO THE USERS OF TOWER CRANES FOR BUILDING WORK
3. MEMORANDUM OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATION
1 STANDARDS OF STRENGTH AND SAFETY FOR TOWER CRANES FOR BUILDING WORK
11 GENERAL INFORMATION
The aim of these regulations is to define the safety requirements for the construction and use of tower cranes.
The regulations are intended to ensure correct construction and must be regarded as minimum requirements.
In so far as their structural steelwork and their mechanical and electrical components are concerned, tower cranes shall comply with the provisions of the Rules for the Design of Hoisting Appliances prepared by the Fédération Européenne de la Manutention (F.E.M.) Section I - (10, avenue Hoche, Paris 8e - France).
Means for securing the crane (jacks, rail clamps, chocks, etc.), for mooring it (bracing stays), for applying brakes and, where necessary, for allowing it to slew freely, shall be provided by the manufacturer to permit immobilization of the crane when it is out of use or to reduce loads due to the force of the wind. These devices shall be provided whether the lifting appliance is mounted on wheels or not, making due allowance for the wind, as stipulated in the Rules for the Design of Hoisting Devices set up by F.E.M. Section I. Detailed instructions for use shall be supplied by the manufacturer to the user. The manufacturer shall likewise provide instructions regarding composition of the ballast at the foot of the tower as well as the ballast to be hung from the counter jib; these shall include, in particular, the maximum weights and sizes for the ballast. The ballast shall be designed to ensure that it can neither move nor fall whilst the crane is in operation, nor when there is a tendency to overturn because of overloading. The manufacturer shall supply the necessary devices to ensure its correct position on the crane.
122 SHOCK ABSORBING DEVICES:
When a crane is designed to travel along a rail track, travelling motion shall be designed to avoid derailment on a correctly laid track during normal usage. The crane shall be provided with robust fenders or similar devices which are capable of supporting the crane on the track if derailment occurs, or if a wheel or an axle breaks.
Furthermore, there shall be a device capable of absorbing shocks.
13 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
133 INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS:
Any electrical gear installed shall be required to conform to the regulations in force in the country of the user.
Furthermore, no electrical wiring shall be subjected to tensile, bending or torsional stresses other than those occasioned by its own weight or by the operation of a winding device; thus a slip-ring or similar device must be provided to pass electric current from a stationary part to a rotating part of the machine except in cases where rotation can be limited to a few turns, the number of which would depend on the height of the tower. The manufacturer shall supply the user with all necessary information concerning the main supply cable to the crane (series, section, number of leads, etc...).
The manufacturer shall provide at the main current in-take on the crane fuses and a switch of suitable capacity, or any other device to ensure the cutting off of all the phases or all the poles except earthing. This switch shall be equipped with a device capable of locking it in the open position.
Furthermore, the driver’s cabin shall be equiped with a master switch allowing the crane driver to stop all movement of the crane except any electro-magnetic lifting device, in the event of abnormal functioning. This switch shall ensure effective protection against current overloads. The electric motors shall be protected separately against current overloads.
133 VOLTAGE SAFETY REGULATIONS:
All bare live conductors in the cabin carrying currents other than those of very low harmless voltage shall be shielded against inadvertent contact.
Any necessary devices shall be provided to prevent unauthorized persons gaining access to live components and to components whose maladjustment might interfere with safety; the switch gear boxes in particular shall be padlocked or otherwise locked and all boxes containing resistances guarded so that hands cannot be inserted.
Where remote control is used, all circuits which terminate with a hand-operated control shall carry only a low voltage not exceeding 55 volts (see paragraph 131).
134 EARTHING SYSTEMS:
All stationary and moving metallic masses shall be earthed in accordance with regulations in force in the country of the user.
Earthing shall be ensured by a supplementary conductor made and installed in accordance with the same regulations as those governing supply leads.
The user is reminded that he must also ensure that the crane track is earthed.
14. CABINS AND MEANS OF ACCESS
Cabins which are not at all times accessible directly from the ground must be built of fire resistant materials. The minimum size of the cabins must be adequate to allow operation without inconvenience, particularly affording sufficient height and floor space.
They shall be so located that the driver is at all times able to see from his working position all operations carried out and, within the limits of possibility, the load itself, and so that even if he is compelled to lean out to direct these operations, he would not be in a dangerous position.
Cabins shall be provided with a roof to protect the driver from falling objects.
The frames of the glazed windows shall be designed so that the panes can be cleaned without danger to personnel.
Provision shall be made to ensure that the cabin can be properly ventilated and effectively lit.
Where the source of power is other than electrical, appropriate measures must be taken to prevent exhaust fumes from the engine obscuring the view of or causing discomfort to the driver.
Where the driving position is located at the foot of the crane a protective roof shall be provided.
The control platform and all other platforms must be made of fireproof materials.
Where perforated sheet-metal or any other material not presenting an unbroken surface is used, the perforations or interstices shall have a maximum diameter of 3 cms. in the absence of a stricter rule.
Platforms and gangways should be provided with toe-guards of a minimum height of 10 cms.
143 ACCESS TO CABINS, AND PATHS FOLLOWED FOR ASSEMBLY WORK, MAINTENANCE AND CONTROL:
Access to cabins and paths followed for assembly work, maintenance and control shall be designed for optimum safety.
In particular, there must be no places with a free drop below along the the path normally followed by the driver when going to or from his working place. When access is by means of ladders, these shall be placed at a distance of about 0.16 metres from the face of the tower. From a height not exceeding 2 metres above the bottom of the ladder, these ladders shall be fitted with hoop-guards of a diameter not exceeding 0.70 metres, with the hoops spaced at a maximum distance of 0.90 metres or at a maximum distance of 2.40 metres if they are connected together by at least three vertical rails suitably spaced.
Where the ladder is placed inside the tower, this positioning shall be accepted instead of the hoop guards, provided that the inside of the tower, without the ladder, is not more than 1 metre square, or if triangular, the greatest side does not exceed 1.50 metres.
In all cases, whether hoop-guards be provided or not, rest platforms shall be provided at maximum intervals of 10 metres. Where the ladder is equipped with hoop-guards, the distance over which they are omitted above each platform shall not exceed 2 metres. Where the platforms and gangways are on the outside of the tower they must be fitted with guard-rails.
Provision shall be made to ensure that the cabin can be heated.
In electrically-operated tower cranes, the manufacturer shall provide an electrical point in the cabin to enable a heating appliance and its safety transformer to be connected up if required.
15 MOTORS, CHAINS AND ROPES, LIMIT SWITCHES
151 GUARDING OF MOVING PARTS:
All the moving parts shall be fitted with guards wherever their motion is liable to cause danger to personnel.
The crane’s running-wheels shall be fitted with wheel guards unless their position provides equivalent safety.
All overhanging, moving parts of the motors or the controls of the crane shall be provided with a casing or a metal cover to retain them should they be displaced.
152 PROTECTION AGAINST FALLING OBJECTS:
All appropriate steps shall be taken to prevent objects from falling from the cranes and to afford protection to workmen in such cases.
153 HOOKS, ROPES, SLINGS:
All suspension hooks shall be of adequate design and strength and shall be designed to prevent accidental displacement of the load.
The ropes and the slings shall not be subjected to a load exceeding one-sixth of their theoretical breaking load. They shall not be spliced other than at their ends. They shall correspond to the F.E.M. rules for the choice of ropes (see paragraph 112).
154 WINDING DRUMS:
The flanges of the drum on which the rope is wound shall project above the last layer of rope wound on in normal operation by at least twice the rope’s diameter.
The strength of the system used to anchor the rope on the winding drum shall be equal to at least thrice the normal working load on the rope; 3 dead turns on the drum next to the anchorage of the rope are compulsory.
All cranes shall be equipped with brakes or other equivalent device capable of stopping the load or the crane in any position.
Such devices shall be either automatic or operated by the crane driver immediately and directly from his working position, even in the event of a total or partial interruption in the power supply to the crane.
This latter requirement shall not apply to the traversing motion (jib-crab) when, with the absence of any wind effect and with the source of power suddenly cut off, the crane component under consideration is capable of stopping over 0.50 metres, or, in the event of an unfavourable wind; over a distance in metres of not more than one thirtieth of the speed of the component expressed in metres per minute.
Uncontrolled lowering of loads is forbidden. The lowering of loads solely under the control of a brake shall be permissible only if the machinery is equipped with a speed limiter (a device which limits the speed that can be reached by the load when the brake is released) and only if such brakes call for continuous action by the driver throughout the descent, i.e. only if the brake is of the type which is automatically applied as soon as such action by the driver ceases (brake with controlled release).
156 SAFETY DEVICES:
Provision shall be made for the following:
(1°) A torque or load limiter that will function on an overload of 10 per cent maximum.
(2°) Where this torque limiter is inaccurate for small radii a maximum load limiter shall be provided.
(3°) An upper end-of-travel limiter for the lifting hook.
(4°) Resilient buffers at both ends of travel of the jib-crab.
(5°) Inward and outward limiters for jibs which derrick under load.
(6°) Travel limiters for the rail track.
The torque or load limiters shall cut off lifting motion in the upward direction as well as the crab traversing motion in the outward direction, or the outward motion of the jib when the latter can be derricked under load.
To enable loads to be hooked on without workmen having to handle the pulley block or the hoisting rope, a few chain links might be provided between the pulley block and the hook, when the safe load is up to 3 tons.
Pulley blocks that are handled shall be equipped with a protective device to prevent the hand of a workman being accidentally caught between the rope and the pulley block.
158 ACCIDENTAL DROPPING OF LOADS:
Electro-magnetic or pneumatic gripping devices shall be allowable only if they are equipped with efficient devices other than electro-magnetic devices to prevent the load being dropped.
These devices shall not be compulsory if effective measures are taken to prevent the access of personnel to zones where loads might be dropped accidentally.
16 SAFETY IN OPERATION
161 MARKING OF CONTROLS:
All controls shall be clearly marked to indicate their purpose and mode of operation.
162 INSTRUCTION PLATES:
Plates clearly indicating the rated loads and the radii shall be placed in the driver’s cabin, outside on the crane tower and, if necessary, on the jib.
If special materials such as high tensile steel or aluminum alloys have been used in the structure, the crane shall bear a notice to this effect.
Plates giving working instructions and other directions concerning the use of the crane shall also be placed in the cabin.
163 SIGNALLING SYSTEM:
An audible warning device shall be provided for operation from the driving position.
17 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE
171 PROTECTION OF MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL:
To permit regular inspection, greasing and maintenance to be carried out and, in the absence of properly protected passageways, provision shall be made to allow for the use of a safety belt. Pulleys at the end of the jib shall be designed so as to dispense with the need for any maintenance lubrication between the erection and dismantling of the crane.
172 TESTS AND INSPECTION LOGBOOK:
The manufacturer shall supply all documents such as Logbook and Test Certificates which shall be readily available for inspection at all times.
2 RECOMMENDATIONS TO THE USERS OF TOWER CRANES FOR BUILDING WORK
In the absence of any stricter national regulations, the user shall fulfil the following requirements.
21 CRANE AND TRACK INSTALLATION
The location of the crane and its track shall be chosen as follows:
A free space of about 0.6 metres shall be allowed between projecting parts of the crane and any buildings. Where such an arrangement is not practicable, refuges shall be provided at regular intervals not more than 10 metres apart, failing which access to the danger zone shall be prohibited.
Steps shall be taken to ensure that no part of the crane or the suspended load itself can come into contact with live electric power lines. To this end, these lines shall be situated a safe distance away.
The stability of the crane, whether it be stationary or mobile, in service or merely subjected to the force of the wind, shall at all times be safeguarded by absolute firmness of the ground and by appropriate mooring and staying devices (bracing struts, ballast, jib allowed to slew freely, etc...).
The ground which is to support the crane shall be examined and if necessary suitably made up to prevent deflection tendency of the crane. In particular where a crane travels along a track, the latter shall be built on solid supports. The instructions of the manufacturers shall stipulate that the pressure on the ground shall not exceed 3Kg/cm2. Similarly, regardless of whether it is anchored to the foot of the tower or to the overhanging part of the jib, the ballast shall conform to the manufacturer’s instructions as regards its weight, density, size, etc. The counter-jib ballast may be in reinforced concrete or in bulk form, but in the latter case, the material used for the ballast shall be contained in a closed metal case aryl the density of the material used shall be checked each time the crane is reassembled.
Furthermore, in the case of cranes mounted on wheels, in order to prevent their being moved by the force of the wind, chocking, mooring and braking devices shall be provided. These shall be designed to withstand the strongest wind forces to be expected under local conditions.
The ends of all rail tracks shall be equipped with buffers designed so as to avoid derailment or overturning of the crane.
Otherwise, failing provision of an equivalent device, crane travel shall be slowed down at each end of the track by a suitably arranged quantity of sand placed in front of the buffers.
22 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATIONS
221 ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY LINES:
Where a crane is designed to travel along a track and to be supplied from several different points, the points shall be supplied by a single power line.
The user shall obtain from the manufacturer all particulars concerning the type and cross-section of the power supply lines having regard to the optimum operational possibilities of the crane, the manner in which these lines are laid, and, where applicable, to local weather conditions.
All steps shall be taken to prevent damage to power lines due to mechanical, chemical or heat effects. In particular, no part of a lifting appliance, whatever it may be, nor the suspended load, must be capable of coming into direct contact with bare live conductors or of damaging insulated conductors. To this end they shall be kept a safe distance away from the conductors.
Where a crane is powered by a flexible multi-lead cable and there is any danger of the latter’s being crushed or severed between the track and any part of the crane such as a stone-fender, wheel, etc., the user shall equip his crane with a winding drum or similar device capable of affording an equivalent degree of protection to the cable.
If the crane is of the stationary type and is connected directly to the main distribution board or to any point on the main supply, provision shall be made on the crane supply system and immediately below the connection point for a circuit-breaker or a switch with fuses of appropriate cut-off capacity. The switchgear chosen shall be capable of cutting off all the phases and all the poles and shall permit the crane and its power leads to be isolated from the source of current; it shall also be capable of being locked on the « circuit broken » position. If the crane is of the travelling type and uses only one fixed power supply point which is already protected by one of the switchgear devices stipulated above, it will suffice to provide a switch of appropriate capacity near the crane and in a position which is easily accessible to, and known by, all personnel. When this is the case the locking device referred to above shall be used on this latter switch. If the crane is of the travelling type and uses several power supply points, these points must be branched on to the same supply line which must be protected and arranged as indicated in the paragraph above. Where such supply points consist of power take-offs, the latter shall be either of the « recessed plug » type or shall be supplemented by interlocking switches to prevent the withdrawable part of the connector from being inserted or withdrawn while the connector is live.
All metallic masses shall be earthed regardless of the supply voltage. Such earthing shall be made by a special conductor and via the rails, which shall be properly connected up for the purpose.
When a single multi-core cable is used to supply the crane it shall include an earthing conductor wire in addition to the supply conductors. This earthing conductor shall not be cut off by the switch or the circuit breaker referred to in paragraph 222 above.
23 LIFTING ACCESSORIES
231 HOISTING ROPE:
All splicing other than at the thimbles used on the ends of the hoisting rope is prohibited. Any hoisting rope in which a number of wires equivalent to a full strand is broken or in which the external wires show a degree of wear in excess of 50 per cent of their diameter shall be rejected and replaced by a new rope in good condition. It is important to note that when a rope is replaced, the new rope must be of identical composition and diameter to that recommended by the manufacturer; a greater diameter does not increase the service life of the rope.
Chains shall not be shortened by knotting and precautions shall be taken to avoid damage by contact with sharp edges.
It shall be the user’s responsibility to maintain in good condition the hook and any device for preventing accidental unhooking of the load.
Sling dimensions shall be compatible with hook sizes. Slings shall be arranged and maintained to prevent them from breaking, slipping or being cut. They shall not be placed in contact with sharp corners on the loads they are required to lift. For a given load, their strength must be increased as the angle between the sling legs increases.
235 ACCESSORY RATINGS:
The maximum safe load which can be applied to hooks, ropes, chains, etc., shall be clearly marked on each accessory or, alternatively, on a plate or a ring securely fixed to the tackle.
24 DRIVERS’ QUALIFICATIONS
241 BASIC REQUIREMENTS:
It is forbidden to assign to crane driving duties any worker who does not fulfil the following conditions:
2411 MINIMUM AGE:
The minimum age for driving a building crane shall be the same as the one fixed in each country for driving a heavy lorry.
2412 PHYSICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION — PROMPTITUDE OF REFLEXES:
Normally a preliminary medical examination is recommended.
Sufficient and adequate training given if possible by a trade school.
2414 PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE:
Before being entrusted with a crane the crane driver must have worked at least one month as assistant crane driver. During that time he must have shown that he completely understands the characteristics and the use of these machines.
242 THEORETICAL QUALIFICATIONS:
— Some knowledge of electricity and internal combustion engines.
— General knowledge of the construction of a crane.
— Some knowledge of technical terms.
— Understanding of a working drawing and identification of spare parts.
243 PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE:
2431 BEFORE STARTING TO USE THE CRANE:
— Check the track (buffers, sleepers, earth connection, and verify it is level).
— Check the supply voltage.
— Check the ballast (at the base and on the counter-jib).
— Fill up the oil sumps and lubricate.
— Put the parts of the crane in proper order for assembly.
— Check the electrical equipment.
— Check the safety devices (their operation and adjustment).
2432 DRIVING THE CRANE:
In addition to the correct operation of the various motions of the crane, the crane driver must know the safety rules in force in the country of use and the special safety rules recommended by the crane manufacturer.
— Lubrication — lubrication chart.
— Periodical checking of the structure and the bolts.
— Normal running repairs.
— Keeping up to date of a maintenance and inspection book.
25. DRIVER’S CABIN AND CRANE OPERATION
251 ACCESS TO THE CRANE:
The approach to the ladder giving access to the driver’s cabin must be level and free from obstructions to free passage of the crane driver as he goes to or from his working position. When natural lighting is inadequate, access to the working position shall be provided with suitable placed anti-glare artificial lighting.
252 DRIVER’S CABIN:
The best possible arrangements shall be made to shelter the crane driver from the weather, smoke, toxic gas fumes, radiation or other harmful emanations.
Window frames provided by the manufacturer in the cabin shall be fitted with safety glass.
During cold weather the heating of the cabin shall be efficient, for example by a radiator with low temperature heating elements and of a very low voltage.
253 CRANE OPERATIONS:
The clearance provided between the jib and the highest gangway used by workmen on the building shall measure at least two metres. If the load passes at a distance of less than two metres above the highest gangway, a signaller shall be stationed on that gangway to give warning of the approach of the loads.
In cases where a lifting device is not controlled from the ground but from a suspended cabin, a worker shall ensure constant liaison, using signals, between the driver and signaller on the ground over which the load is liable to be be moved.
A chart of hand control signals for operating lifting appliances shall be displayed inside the cabin.
In cases where the conditions laid down in paragraph 211 above, in connection with crane siting in relation to electric power lines, are difficult to fulfil, the crane user shall be required to equip his crane with efficient, strongly constructed slewing limiters. If necessary, it must be possible to operate such devices from the cabin or control position.
254 FIRE PREVENTION MEASURES:
The storing of rags, waste, oil or other combustible material in the driver’s cabin is strictly forbidden.
Closed metal containers shall be provided outside the cabin for rags and other waste and shall be emptied at regular intervals.
Cabins shall be equiped with extinguishers to ensure that any outbreak of fire can be effectively dealt with.
The extinguishing products used must not be dangerous to workmen.
26 RULES AND REGULATIONS
The Rules and Regulations shall be posted up on all premises or sites wherever any of them are applicable, as well as in drivers’ cabins.
These Rules and Regulations must include the following:
(1°) The safety measures to be taken during normal operation of the appliance, and, particularly, clear instructions to the effect that the power supply must be cut off when the driver leaves his working position.
(2°) Precautions to be taken to prevent displacement of objects irrespective of whether such objects are carried by the lifting device itself or are struck by it or its load when the crane is in motion.
(3°) Prohibition of riding on the load or on the hook or the sling.
(4°) The safety measures to be laid down for safeguarding workmen taking part in the crane inspection, greasing, cleaning, maintenance and repair work.
262 OPERATION OF THE CRANE:
The signaler referred to in the second sub-paragraph of paragraph 253 shall take effective steps to prevent any danger from the loads or through accidental dropping thereof. He shall attend to all slinging, picking up, transporting, setting down and unhooking operations. He shall also ensure that the regulations in connection with the prohibition of riding on the loads and on the hooks or the slings are strictly observed by all workmen.
It is forbidden:
(1°) to use lifting appliances to tow vehicles of any description, to pull away loads attached to the ground or to walls, or for any operations other than the mechanical handling of loads,
(2°) to make the crane describe a complete revolution without subsequently slewing it back again in cases where the hoist winch does not turn with the jib in order to prevent the lifting rope from twisting.
A priority drill shall be laid down when several cranes are working and travelling on the same track.
263 MOVEMENT OF LOADS:
It is forbidden:
(1°) to exert an oblique pull on the load,
(2°) to lift a load of greater weight than that indicated on the appliance, having regard to prevailing working conditions,
(3°) to carry loads over the heads of workmen unnecessarily,
(4°) to swing a load in an attempt to set it down at a point which is normally beyond the crane’s reach.
264 TRANSPORT OF WORKMEN:
It is forbidden to use lifting appliances to transport workmen except under exceptional circumstances for which special permission has been granted.
27 MAINTENANCE AND SERVICING
271 SAFETY DURING MAINTENANCE AND SERVICING OPERATIONS:
In cases where the workmen are exposed to danger when engaged in servicing and maintenance, the user shall provide them with effective safety belts together with all necessary fittings. He shall furthermore ensure that such belts are effectively used and are properly maintained.
Periodic adjustments shall be made to the brakes and to the traction cable of the jib crab.
All greasing, cleaning, maintenance and repairs shall be done when the crane is stationary.
Should it be absolutely necessary, however, to set the crane in motion in order to carry out certain tasks, the latter shall be performed under the supervision of a qualified person and not during normal use of the crane.
A qualified supervisor shall also be employed when any work is carried out in immediate proximity to bare live wires.
273 INITIAL TESTS:
Before being put into service, all cranes shall be tested.
274 PERIODIC INSPECTIONS1:
In addition to the tests mentioned above, all appliances and their accessories shall be thoroughly examined in accordance with local requirements.
In addition, the appliances and their accessories shall be inspected each time they are put into service after remaining idle, unless they were inspected less than three months previously.
Such inspections shall be repeated each time an appliance has been dismantled or has undergone modifications. Appliances which are moved about frequently, shall, however, be exempted from such inspections provided they are tested at least every six months.
Tests and inspections shall be done by a competent person.
3 MEMORANDUM OF INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATION
The memorandum of instructions shall be written in the language of the country of the user and shall cover the following points and any additional items required by national regulations.
Main particulars of the crane or cranes installed on the building site and details of the safety equipment with which it is or they are provided.
Name of the person responsible for maintenance.
Name of the crane driver and, where applicable, his deputy for each crane.
Name of the signaller on the pickup area, on the set-down area and, where applicable, names of intermediate signallers.
32 ROUTINE SERVICE
The correct level of the track or the supports used for the appliance (daily).
The condition and location of end-of-track buffers and the shock absorbing devices which precede them (daily).
The condition and efficiency of the brakes under no-load conditions (daily).
The condition, adjustment and functioning of the various limiters and safety devices fitted to the lifting appliance (daily).
The condition of the electric power supply installation (daily).
The condition of the earthing devices and continuity of the earthing circuit (daily).
The condition and weight of all ballasting on each occasion of installation or alteration.
The condition, at specified intervals, of the lifting rope and its anchorage on the winding drum and the number of rope turns which must remain on the drum under all circumstances.
322 STEPS TO BE TAKEN PRIOR TO USE:
Removal if possible of all overhead electric conductors inside the working zone of the crane.
Special safety regulations to be observed in cases where a bare electric conductor cannot be removed and must therefore remain inside the working zone.
323 CRANE OPERATION:
It is forbidden for the crane driver to stand on or climb onto the framework outside his cabin whilst the crane is in operation.
Full visibility must be afforded to the crane driver during operation of the crane and movement of the load; failing this the regulations applying to signallers must be observed.
Minimum distance to be observed between the clearance of the appliance and the various parts of the building under construction; provision where necessary of shelters and the framing of a code of warning signals.
Role of the ground signaller during operations and supervision of the movement of the crane near the end of the track.
Means to be provided for cutting off the electric power.
Priority of operation to be defined should different cranes’ working zones overlap.
Measures to be taken to prevent the rope being twisted (by alternate rotation of the jib and unrolling and untwisting the rope on the ground, etc.).
Prohibiting unauthorized persons from operating a lifting appliance.
324 LIFTING LOADS:
Specification of weights to be lifted and appointment of responsible persons for checking and assessing them.
Prohibition of attempts to lift a load attached to the ground, or to walls.
Prohibition from swinging loads or pulling them obliquely.
Precautions to be taken during exceptional forms of lifting operation (e.g. lifting large panels liable to be caught by the wind, or a combined lift by two cranes at the same time) by anchoring or otherwise preventing the jib crab moving to the end of the jib.
325 INTERRUPTION OF WORK:
When wind velocity as indicated by the manufacturer (on the basis of F.E.M. design rules - see paragraph 112) is above that at which it is advisable to stop work. Method of determining this.
Safety measures to be taken in high winds or stormy conditions (designation and use of anchoring points or strutting points, in accordance with recommendations given by the manufacturer on the basis of F.E.M. design rules - see paragraph 112).
Positioning of the crane or cranes at the aforementioned anchoring points or strutting points during idle periods.
Obligation of the crane driver to cut off the electric supply when he leaves his working position.
Capacity of protection fuses; fault tracing in the event of blown fuses.
Cleanliness of control positions and electrical cubicles. Compulsory closure of the latter.
33 PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN TO PREVENT OBJECTS FROM FALLING
Daily checks of slings, their fastenings and of hook safety devices, if any.
Safety measures to be observed when attaching and hooking on loads; choice and position of slings and chains and of guard rails placed round platforms; closure and locking of grabs and buckets, balancing of long loads, etc.
Provision of landing places on each floor on the building.
Duties of the signaller(s), particularly with regard to supervising and checking of proper attachments of the load.
Obligation of the crane driver to agree methods with the signaller or signallers before each operation.
Code of operating signals to be observed; ensuring that the crane driver and each signaller has a copy of this code.
Prohibition from leaving loads suspended.
Prohibition from remaining in the hoisting area during normal lifting operations and during testing. Suitable provision during the latter to permit easy escape. Defining of the dangerous zone.
Precautions to be taken in the case of authorized transport of workmen by a crane (checking of the special lifting hook and the guard rails; avoidance of swinging and of the platform’s running foul of the walls or of any openings, etc.).
34 PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN DURING MAINTENANCE, INSPECTION, REPAIR WORK OR ASSEMBLY
All maintenance, greasing and other similar work must be done when the crane is idle, the crane to be placed out of service for the time required. Obligation to switch off and lock the electric power supply. Compulsory use of the hoop-guards of trapdoors for reaching the working position. Prohibition from climbing on the steel framing.
Instruction as to the location, availability and use of safety belts and their accessories.
Prohibition from climbing to the end of the jib, or instructions on the special precautions to be taken when this is unavoidable.
Obligation (before a crane is assembled) to grease all anti-friction bearings located elsewhere than in the lower, and to fill the grease boxes in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Intervals between greasing in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
Inspection of all electrical insulations.
Replacement after maintenance of all casings or guards used to enclose dangerous components (gears, wheels, belts, etc.) and of all junction-box covers.
Inspection of all working ropes prior to undertaking a raising or telescoping operation of the appliance.
A check to be made of all telescoping safety devices prior to any telescoping or dismantling operation.
A check to be made of all pulleys in each block and of the correct positioning of the rope in the pulley grooves immediately after a pulley-block is placed under load and before it is required to perform any operation.
Appointment of a foreman and positioning of workmen during telescoping and dismantling operations.
Test loads to be placed at the disposal of the inspecting organisations; composition of such test loads.
In adopting this Recommendation, the Council:
1. NOTED that Canada, Japan and the United States had not participated in this work and that the Recommendation would not apply to those countries.
2. NOTED that nothing in the present wording of the Recommendation and in that of the Model Safety Regulations would prevent changes being made in those texts if the need subsequently arose.
* This Recommendation does not apply to Canada, Japan or the United States who did not participate in the preparation of the Model Safety Regulations.
 Sec paragraph 212 — «Recommendations to the Users».
 See paragraph 253 concerning the use of a signaller.
 See paragraph 271 «Safety during maintenance».
 See «Rules for the Design of Hoisting Appliances» drawn up by the F.E.M. (cf. paragraph 112)c
 See «Memorandum of Instructions for Operation», page 121 et seq.
 Section I of the F.E.M. has compared testing conditions in the various countries, which appear in the «Rules for the Design of Hoisting Appliances», (cf. paragraph 112).