HAVING REGARD to Article 5 b) of the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development of 14 December 1960;

HAVING REGARD to the Recommendation of the Council on Principles concerning Coastal Management of 12 October 1976 [C(76)161(Final)];

HAVING REGARD to the Recommendation of the Council on Environment and Tourism of 8 May 1979 [C(79)115];

HAVING REGARD to the Recommendation of the Council on the Assessment of Projects with Significant Impact on the Environment of 8 May 1979 [C(79)116];

HAVING REGARD to the Recommendation of the Council on Water Resource Management Policies: Integration, Demand Management, and Groundwater Protection of 31 March 1989 [C(89)12(Final)];

HAVING REGARD to the Recommendation of the Council on the Use of Economic Instruments in Environmental Policy of 31 January 1991 [C(90)177/FINAL];

RECOGNISING the significant social, economic and environmental value of coastal zones and their resources, as well as their value to indigenous peoples, and the pressure exerted by conflicting demands on coastal zones and their natural resources, leading to environmental and ecosystem deterioration;

RECOGNISING the potential impact on coastal zones and the oceans of sea level rise associated with climate change;

CONSIDERING that the OECD Environment Committee at Ministerial Level has affirmed the significance of international co-operation in environmental policy-making and agreed that a key to sustainable development lies in the full integration of economic and environmental policies and that, inter alia, economic instruments be used in conjunction with regulations for achieving policy integration;

CONSIDERING that Environment Ministers have identified coastal zones and the oceans as areas where improved policy integration through integrated resource management strategies and comprehensive land use planning is required;

CONSIDERING that Environment Ministers reaffirmed that the precautionary principle will guide their approach when confronted by threats of serious irreversible environmental damage, i.e. that lack of full scientific certainty will not be used as a reason for postponing measures to prevent environmental degradation;

HAVING REGARD to the report entitled "Coastal Zone Management: Integrated Policies", which provides guidance to Member countries for implementing this Recommendation [ENV/EPOC(92)3];

On the proposal of the Environment Policy Committee:

I.          RECOMMENDS that, to help achieve the goals of ecologically sustainable development and integrated resource management, strategic planning and integrated management of coastal zones should be developed, and implemented by Member countries, through:

·            Defining policy objectives specific for the coasts and their resources to provide guidance to and enhance co-ordination of national, regional and local government strategies/plans for coastal zones;

·            Strengthening the integration and harmonisation of sectoral policies affecting coastal zone management and resource usage.

This can be achieved through more effective utilisation or extension of existing planning and management structures and by designating an authority to co-ordinate action. The necessary resources for this co-ordination to be provided by all concerned levels of government;

II.         RECOMMENDS that, in view of the diverse and often conflicting uses of and pressures on coastal zone resources, Member countries should employ policy instruments, individually or in combination, in integrated coastal zone planning and management, including:

·            Collection and updating of relevant information, and development of coastal environment indicators to guide planning and monitoring of coastal zone activities and processes;

·            Establishment of environmental objectives for: land use planning and zoning, coastal waters planning (including inland waters, semi-enclosed seas, estuaries), conservation requirements, ecosystem protection and restoration, discharge limits, water quality for receiving waters and waters flowing into the coastal zone, and control and reduction of inputs from polluting and hazardous substances;

·            Establishment and maintenance of monitoring and enforcement procedures for environmental objectives and targets;

·            Environmental assessment incorporating economic and social criteria;

·            Public education and participation in decision-making at an early stage of policy formulation and project assessment, and adoption of wider public participation procedures;

·            Application of regulations and economic instruments within the framework of the Polluter-Pays Principle, and pricing coastal zone resources to reflect social costs of use and depletion;

·            Where appropriate, enactment of national legislation to enforce coastal zone management objectives;

III.        RECOMMENDS that particular attention should be given to achieving sustainable management and conservation of fishing resources at the local, national and international levels, and that co-ordination of all relevant authorities should be ensured;

IV.        RECOMMENDS that, in view of the economic and environmental significance of tourism and its associated infrastructure, a designated co-ordination authority should ensure that a proper balance is found between tourism development and the carrying capacity of the coastal zone;

V.         RECOMMENDS that international co-operation for the management of shared or common coastal areas should be enhanced by existing or extended international coastal zone management bodies preparing, implementing and monitoring an integrated action plan that is consistent with other relevant coastal zone management initiatives;

VI.        RECOMMENDS that the Environment Policy Committee and other relevant committees review progress in the establishment of mechanisms for integrated coastal zone management within two years of enactment of this Recommendation, and that the Environment Policy Committee and other relevant committees further undertake a review of the effectiveness of actions taken in accordance with this Recommendation within five years of its enactment.