HAVING REGARD to Article 5 b) of the Convention on the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development of 14 December 1960;
HAVING REGARD to the Recommendation of the Council of 14 November 1974 on Energy and the Environment [C(74)222];
HAVING REGARD to the Secretary-General's proposals for follow-up action to the Long Term Energy Assessment [C(74)259];
HAVING REGARD to the Report of the Task Force on Energy and the Environment [ENV(76)6];
HAVING REGARD to the Recommendation of the Council of 18 June 1974 on Guidelines for Action to Reduce Emissions of Sulphur Oxides and Particulate Matter from Fuel Combustion in Stationary Sources [C(74)16(Final)];
HAVING REGARD to the Recommendation of the Council of 14 November 1974 on Measures Required for Further Air Pollution Control [C(74)219];
RECOGNISING the need to take into account the problem of the long-range transport of air pollutants;
RECOGNISING the need for policy actions to reduce adverse environmental impacts from energy production and use, while maintaining and developing programmes for the rational use of the energy, including its conservation;
RECOGNISING that energy policy objectives and environmental policy objectives of Member countries for the next decade are either already compatible or can, with adjustment, be made compatible;
On the proposal of the Environment Committee;
I. RECOMMENDS that Member countries, in the planning and implementation of their energy and environment policies, ensure that:
i) Environment policies and energy policies are integrated, both at the formulation stage and the implementation stage;
ii) The public is objectively informed and its views are sought;
iii) Land use planning is employed, which takes into account environmental protection goals;
iv) Consideration is given as to differences in costs and benefits to these directly affected and to the nation as a whole when examining energy production and use;
v) Energy prices include pollution control costs and moreover that consideration be given to the inclusion in such prices of damage costs associated with the production and transport of energy;
vi) Consideration is given now, in consultation with other Member countries, to the fundamental changes which may arise after 1985 in energy resources development, conversion and use and their environmental implications;
vii) Energy conservation measures which have positive environmental effects should be promoted;
viii) Efforts are made to accelerate the development and exploitation of new and existing energy sources, and that in so doing, due respect is given to environmental requirements and adequate precautions are taken to minimise environmental impacts.
II. RECOMMENDS that Member countries, when developing their policies for the siting of major energy facilities, ensure that:
i) Solutions acceptable to the interested parties are actively sought within the siting decision process;
ii) Legislative or administrative means be found to encourage the development of siting policies at national level as part of energy development and environmental policies;
iii) Electricity and heat utilities be encouraged, wherever appropriate, to become combined electricity and heat producers, subject to all relevant environmental protection regulations;
iv) Industrial users be encouraged, wherever appropriate, and where this will lead to improved economic use of resources, to:
a) Increase the in-house generated proportion of their total energy requirements and;
b) To market surplus energy, and that these measures comply with environmental controls and standards and be co-ordinated with electricity and heat utilities;
v) Within each country there be a system to assess the environmental impacts of energy facilities (including comparison with those of other industrial developments) either by preparing environmental impact statements or by other comprehensive assessment methods.
III. RECOMMENDS that, with regard to exploring or exploiting off-shore oil and gas resources, Member countries recognising that oil pollution of the ocean leads to harmful effects on marine life:
i) Ensure that sufficient emergency arrangements be made on a national or international basis and that the necessary authority and responsibility be assigned in advance and that the necessary equipment is readily available to deal with possible oil spills and pipeline ruptures;
ii) Ensure that best available construction, operation techniques and safety standards be applied to prevent oil spills;
iii) Establish minimum training standards for workers on off-shore platforms and co-operate with industry to provide the courses and facilities which are necessary for the training of these workers in order to prevent accidents and thereby safeguard the environment;
iv) Examine the adequacy of their regulations with respect to monitoring and enforcement procedures, and provide their monitoring and enforcement agencies with the necessary means to fulfil their tasks;
v) Evaluate, together with local authorities, the onshore impacts which may result from offshore activities with respect to land use, social, employment, economic and environmental patterns, before the decision to lease offshore areas is taken;
vi) Develop, in close co-operation with local authorities, long-term coastal land use plans taking into consideration, among other factors, energy and environmental policies.
IV. RECOMMENDS that, with regard to surface mined coal, Member countries ensure that:
i) In the extraction of coal by strip mining the best available mining methods which enable the adequate restoration of the land and hydrological systems should be applied;
ii) Extraction of coal by strip mining methods is not undertaken in those areas where the land cannot now be adequately restored until a) acceptable mining methods for the particular terrain are developed, or b) reclamation methods are devised that will restore the land and hydrological systems to an environmentally satisfactory condition;
iii) The necessary research and development programmes be undertaken to develop mining methods for those strippable seams for which no satisfactory method now exists, and to initiate a large scale programme to develop the technology necessary for the reclamation of land for a wide variety of soil types, including arid areas.
V. RECOMMENDS that Member countries, with regard to sulphur oxide emissions:
i) Participate in an international examination of control strategies needed to reduce emissions of sulphur compounds to acceptable levels in view of their effects on man and the environment;
ii) Accept the view that the effects resulting from long-range transport of pollutants should be taken into due account by Member countries so that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other countries.
VI. INSTRUCTS the Environment Committee to conduct a survey in Member countries two years hence in order to prepare a report to the Council on specific new measures which were taken, or on existing measures which were reinforced, during the two year period following the adoption of this Recommendation.